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Oncology. 2017;92 Suppl 1:50-62. doi: 10.1159/000451016. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Basics and Ongoing Clinical Trials.

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1
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Japan.

Abstract

Clinical trials of antibodies targeting the immune checkpoint inhibitors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are ongoing. Expansion cohorts of a phase I/II trial of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab in advanced HCC showed favorable results. Two phase III studies are currently ongoing: a comparison of nivolumab and sorafenib in the first-line setting for advanced HCC, and a comparison of the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab and a placebo in the second-line setting for patients with advanced HCC who progressed on sorafenib therapy. The combination of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies is being evaluated in other phase I/II trials, and the results suggest that an anti-PD-1 antibody combined with locoregional therapy or other molecular targeted agents is an effective treatment strategy for HCC. Immune checkpoint inhibitors may therefore open new doors to the treatment of HCC.

PMID:
28147363
DOI:
10.1159/000451016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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