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Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2017 Jun;45(3):251-257. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12283. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Fluoride in the diet of 2-years-old children.

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Department of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Riley Hospital for Children, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Department of Child Development, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN, USA.
Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.



This study aimed to calculate the fluoride concentrations of commonly consumed foods and beverages for 2-years-old children utilizing market basket information for the US Midwest region.


Total Diet Study food lists were cross-referenced with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-What We Eat in America data to determine the foods and beverages to be included. Fluoride concentrations were determined using a modification of the hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion technique. Fluoride concentrations were summarized for each of the food categories. Daily dietary fluoride intake was estimated using a simulation analysis.


Food and beverage fluoride concentrations varied widely, ranging from nondetectable for some oils and dairy products to more than 3.0 μgF/g food for some processed meats, fish and fruits. The estimated mean (±SD) daily dietary fluoride intake, excluding dentifrice and supplements, was 412±114 μgF/d. The estimated average ingestion for a 2-years-old weighing 12.24 kg was 0.034±0.009 mg/kg/d. A diet based on foods and beverages in the fifth percentile of fluoride intake distribution for an average child would result in 247 μgF/d or 0.020 mg/kg/d, while a diet with foods and beverages in the 95th percentile would result in a total intake of 622 μgF/d or 0.051 mg/kg/d.


The fluoride concentrations of foods and beverages vary widely, and, if items in the 95th percentile of fluoride intake distribution are ingested, children could consume more fluoride than the recommended 0.05 mg/kg/d. Fluoride intake calculated in this study was higher than historically reported dietary levels.


caries; diet; fluoride; fluorosis; paediatric dentistry

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