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Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 1;7:41299. doi: 10.1038/srep41299.

Controlled doping by self-assembled dendrimer-like macromolecules.

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School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.
University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.
Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, and Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.


Doping via self-assembled macromolecules might offer a solution for developing single atom electronics by precisely placing individual dopants at arbitrary location to meet the requirement for circuit design. Here we synthesize dendrimer-like polyglycerol macromolecules with each carrying one phosphorus atom in the core. The macromolecules are immobilized by the coupling reagent onto silicon surfaces that are pre-modified with a monolayer of undecylenic acid. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to characterize the synthesized macromolecules and the modified silicon surfaces, respectively. After rapid thermal annealing, the phosphorus atoms carried by the macromolecules diffuse into the silicon substrate, forming dopants at a concentration of 1017 cm-3. Low-temperature Hall effect measurements reveal that the ionization process is rather complicated. Unlike the widely reported simple ionization of phosphorus dopants, nitrogen and carbon are also involved in the electronic activities in the monolayer doped silicon.

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