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J Mol Neurosci. 2017 Apr;61(4):498-510. doi: 10.1007/s12031-017-0891-3. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Neuroprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Action of Multifunctional Agents Targeting Free Radicals, Monoamine Oxidase B and Cholinesterase in Parkinson's Disease Model.

Author information

1
Institute of New Drug Research and Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Innovative Chemical Drug Research in Cardio-cerebrovascular Diseases, Jinan University College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou, 510632, China.
2
Institute of New Drug Research and Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Innovative Chemical Drug Research in Cardio-cerebrovascular Diseases, Jinan University College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou, 510632, China. yxy0723@163.com.
3
Institute of New Drug Research and Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Innovative Chemical Drug Research in Cardio-cerebrovascular Diseases, Jinan University College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou, 510632, China. zaijunzhang@163.com.

Abstract

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with multifactorial pathologies, including progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme activity. There are currently only a few agents approved to ameliorate the symptoms of PD; however, no agent is able to reverse the progression of the disease. Due to the multifactorial pathologies, it is necessary to develop multifunctional agents that can affect more than one target involved in the disease pathology. We have designed and synthesized a series of new multifunctional anti-Parkinson's compounds which can protect cerebral granular neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) insult, scavenge free radicals, and inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO)/cholinesterase (ChE) activities. Among them, MT-20R exhibited the most potent MAO-B inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. We further investigated the neuroprotective effects of MT-20R using a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. In vivo, MT-20R alleviated MPTP-induced motor deficits, raised the striatal contents of dopamine and its metabolites, and restored the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the number of TH-positive DA neurons in the substantia nigra. Additionally, MT-20R enhanced the expression of Bcl-2, decreased the expression of Bax and Caspase 3, and activated the AKT/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that MT-20R may be a novel therapeutic candidate for treatment of PD.

KEYWORDS:

ChE inhibitor; MAO inhibitor; Multi-target; Neuroprotection; Parkinson’s disease; Radical scavenger

PMID:
28144826
DOI:
10.1007/s12031-017-0891-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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