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J Hematol Oncol. 2017 Feb 1;10(1):36. doi: 10.1186/s13045-017-0408-0.

Tumor-recruited M2 macrophages promote gastric and breast cancer metastasis via M2 macrophage-secreted CHI3L1 protein.

Author information

1
College of Life Sciences and Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China.
2
Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, 233030, People's Republic of China.
3
College of Life Sciences and Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China. zxb0812@zju.edu.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The macrophage, one of the several key immune cell types, is believed to be involved in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism of macrophages promoting tumor progression is largely unknown.

METHODS:

The differentially secreted proteins of M1 and M2 macrophages were analyzed by mass spectrometry. We performed GST pull-down assay for the identification of cell-membrane receptors that interact with chitinase 3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) protein. The mouse model was used to validate the function of CHI3L1 in cancer metastasis in vivo. Protein phosphorylation and gene expression were performed to study the signaling pathway activation of cancer cells after CHI3L1 treatment.

RESULTS:

M2 macrophage-secreted CHI3L1 promoted the metastasis of gastric and breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The CHI3L1 protein functioned by interacting with interleukin-13 receptor α2 chain (IL-13Rα2) molecules on the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Activation of IL-13Rα2 by CHI3L1 triggered the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, leading to the upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes, which promoted tumor metastasis. The results of this study indicated that the level of CHI3L1 protein in the sera of patients with gastric or breast cancer was significantly elevated compared with those of healthy donors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our study revealed a novel aspect of macrophages with respect to cancer metastasis and showed that CHI3L1 could be a marker of metastatic gastric and breast cancer in patients.

KEYWORDS:

AP-1; CHI3L1; Cancer metastasis; IL-13Rα2; M2 macrophage

PMID:
28143526
PMCID:
PMC5286803
DOI:
10.1186/s13045-017-0408-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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