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Adv Nutr. 2016 Nov 15;7(6):1111-1121. doi: 10.3945/an.116.013219. Print 2016 Nov.

Impact of Dietary Fibers on Nutrient Management and Detoxification Organs: Gut, Liver, and Kidneys.

Kieffer DA1,2,3, Martin RJ1,2,3, Adams SH4,2,5,6.

Author information

1
Graduate Group in Nutritional Biology and.
2
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.
3
Obesity and Metabolism Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA.
4
Graduate Group in Nutritional Biology and shadams@uams.edu.
5
Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR; and.
6
Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Abstract

Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiologic effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. DFs can greatly alter the gut milieu by affecting the gut microbiome, which in turn influences the gut barrier, gastrointestinal immune and endocrine responses, and nitrogen cycling and microbial metabolism. These gut-associated changes can then alter the physiology and biochemistry of the body's other main nutrient management and detoxification organs, the liver and kidneys. The molecular mechanisms by which DF alters the physiology of the gut, liver, and kidneys is likely through gut-localized events (i.e., bacterial nitrogen metabolism, microbe-microbe, and microbe-host cell interactions) coupled with specific factors that emanate from the gut in response to DF, which signal to or affect the physiology of the liver and kidneys. The latter may include microbe-derived xenometabolites, peptides, or bioactive food components made available by gut microbes, inflammation signals, and gut hormones. The intent of this review is to summarize how DF alters the gut milieu to specifically affect intestinal, liver, and kidney functions and to discuss the potential local and systemic signaling networks that are involved.

KEYWORDS:

chronic kidney disease; fiber; microbiota; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; xenobiotic

PMID:
28140328
PMCID:
PMC5105045
DOI:
10.3945/an.116.013219
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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