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J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017 Jul;36(7):754-762. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2016.12.011. Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Pulmonary hypertension and ventilation during exercise: Role of the pre-capillary component.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology, Cliniques Universitaires de Bruxelles, Hôpital Académique Erasme, Bruxelles, Belgium; Department of Cardiovascular, Neural and Metabolic Sciences, Ospedale S. Luca IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy.
2
Department of Cardiovascular, Neural and Metabolic Sciences, Ospedale S. Luca IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy.
3
Department of Cardiology, Cliniques Universitaires de Bruxelles, Hôpital Académique Erasme, Bruxelles, Belgium.
4
Department of Cardiovascular, Neural and Metabolic Sciences, Ospedale S. Luca IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy; Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
5
Department of Cardiology, Cliniques Universitaires de Bruxelles, Hôpital Académique Erasme, Bruxelles, Belgium. Electronic address: jeanluc.vachiery@erasme.ulb.ac.be.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Excessive exercise-induced hyperventilation and high prevalence of exercise oscillatory breathing (EOB) are present in patients with post-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating left heart disease (LHD). Patients with pre-capillary PH have even higher hyperventilation but no EOB. We sought to determine the impact of a pre-capillary component of PH on ventilatory response to exercise in patients with PH and left heart disease.

METHODS:

We retrospectively compared patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, n = 29), isolated post-capillary PH (IpcPH, n = 29), and combined post- and pre-capillary PH (CpcPH, n = 12). Diastolic pressure gradient (DPG = diastolic pulmonary artery pressure - pulmonary wedge pressure) was used to distinguish IpcPH (DPG <7 mm Hg) from CpcPH (DPG ≥7 mm Hg).

RESULTS:

Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was higher in PAH, intermediate in CpcPH, and low in IpcPH. All patients with CpcPH but 1 had PVR >3 Wood unit. Exercise-induced hyperventilation (high minute ventilation over carbon dioxide production, low end-tidal carbon dioxide) was marked in PAH, intermediate in CpcPH, and low in IpcPH (p < 0.001) and correlated with DPG and PVR. Prevalence of EOB decreased from IpcPH to CpcPH to PAH (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients with CpcPH may have worse hemodynamics than patients with IpcPH and distinct alterations of ventilatory control, consistent with more exercise-induced hyperventilation and less EOB. This might be explained at least in part by the presence and extent of pulmonary vascular disease.

KEYWORDS:

cardiopulmonary exercise test; diastolic pressure gradient; oscillatory breathing; pulmonary hypertension; ventilation

PMID:
28131663
DOI:
10.1016/j.healun.2016.12.011
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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