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J Food Sci. 2017 Feb;82(2):523-528. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13594. Epub 2017 Jan 26.

Degrees of Antioxidant Protection: A 2-Year Study of the Bioactive Properties of Organic Milk in Poland.

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Cattle Breeding Div., Animal Breeding & Production Dept., Warsaw Univ. of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
Dept. of Animal Science, Inst. of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Science, Jastrzębiec, Poland.
Dept. of Meadows and Pastures, Inst. of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland.
Unit of Economics and Organization of Animal Production, Animal Breeding & Production Dept., Warsaw Univ. of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.


The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional value of organic milk in Poland, investigate the influence of diet on antioxidant capacity and degree of antioxidant protection (DAP), and to examine the effect of season on the bioactive properties of milk from organic farms. From 2014 to 2015, 820 milk samples were collected from 6 organic farms during indoor feeding season (IDS) and pasture feeding season (PS). Pasture feeding season + corn grain (PSCG) cows' daily ration during pasture feeding season was enriched with 4 kg a day of corn to improve dietary energy balance. Milk obtained during PS was found to have a higher fat content, slight but significantly lower protein content compared with milk from IDS. The study showed that the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in milk fat was strongly linked to the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and, to a lesser extent, on the supply of MUFA. The IDS data (concentration of vitamin E, A, and β-carotene) showed the lowest values compared with the PS and PSCG groups. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and DAP showed an increasing trend in organic milk. PSCG was associated with highest level of DAP (9% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS) and TAS (37% higher than PS and 79% higher than IDS). The results obtained show that supplementation of the basic ration with corn grain improved both TAS and DAP. The higher DAP and TAS value is responsible for product stability, considering the risk factor related to levels of cholesterol-oxide intake in humans.


bioactive properties; degree of antioxidant protection; organic milk; total antioxidant status

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