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Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2016 Dec;6(6):557-569. doi: 10.21037/cdt.2016.11.10.

Venous malformations: clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Author information

1
Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA.
2
Vascular Malformation Center, Englewood, CO 80113, USA.
3
Department of Radiology and Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA.
4
Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02139, USA.
5
Division of Vascular & Interventional Radiology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA;; Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02139, USA.

Abstract

Venous malformation (VM) is the most common type of congenital vascular malformation (CVM). They are present at birth and are often symptomatic, causing morbidity and pain. VMs can be challenging to diagnose and are often confused with hemangioma in terminology as well as with imaging. An accurate clinical history and cross-sectional imaging are critical for diagnosis and for devising management. This manuscript will review imaging approaches to diagnosing VMs and current treatment strategies.

KEYWORDS:

Magnetic resonance; sclerotherapy; ultrasound (US); venous malformations (VM)

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