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Hepat Mon. 2016 Dec 3;16(12):e31541. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.31541. eCollection 2016 Dec.

Sero-Prevalence of Bloodborne Tumor Viruses (HCV, HBV, HTLV-I and KSHV Infections) and Related Risk Factors among Prisoners in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran, in 2008.

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Inflammation and Inflammatory Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran.
University of Applied Science and Technology, Mashhad Branch Region 6, (Prison Organization), Mashhad, IR Iran.
Center of Pathological and Medical Diagnostic Services, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, IR Iran.
Cancer Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran.
Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases (BRCGL), Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Middle East Liver Diseases (MELD) Center, Tehran, IR Iran.
Hepatitis B Molecular Laboratory, Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
Internal Medicine Department, Arash Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.



Prisoners are at high risk of blood borne and sexually transmitted infections due to their high involvement in risky behaviors. In this descriptive/cross-sectional study, the prevalence, sero-prevalence, and risk factors for bloodborne tumor viruses including HTLV-I, HBV, HCV, and KSHV were evaluated among inmates of two central prisons in the northeast of Iran.


Blood samples of 1114 inmates were analyzed for the presence of anti HTLV-I, KSHV, and HCV antibodies and HBsAg by ELISA. PCR tests were performed to confirm the presence of these viruses in plasma and identify the current infections.


The sero-prevalence of HCV, HBV, HTLV-I, and KSHV was 24.5%, 4.2%, 3.4%, and 3.2% and the prevalence of HCV, HBV, HTLV-I, and KSHV was 19.1%, 2.1%, 2%, and 3%, respectively. HCV infection was significantly associated with history of imprisonment, tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption, intravenous drug use, length of imprisonment, and type of crime committed. Thirty one (2.8%) prisoners had HCV-KSHV co-infection, 16 (1.5%) had HCV-HTLV-I co-infection, and 14 (1.3%) had HBV-HCV co-infection. Triple co-infection was observed in seven cases and one case had four infections concomitantly.


This epidemiological study indicated different rates and transmission risks for these viruses. HCV was the most contagious viral infection and HTLV-I was the weakest in the prisoners. Apart from KSHV infection which its prevalence was as twice as in the general population, the prevalence of HBV and HTLV-I in prisoners was nearly in ranges of the general population.


Epidemiology; Hepatitis B Virus (HBV); Hepatitis C Virus (HCV); Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I (HTLV-I); Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpes Virus (KSHV); Prison

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