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J Virol. 2017 Mar 29;91(8). pii: e01824-16. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01824-16. Print 2017 Apr 15.

Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Facilitates Hepatitis B Virus Replication through Binding with Type I Interferon (IFN) Receptor 1 To Repress IFN/JAK/STAT Signaling.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
2
State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China mvlwu@whu.edu.cn jwu@whu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause acute hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms by which HBV evades host immunity and maintains chronic infection are largely unknown. Here, we revealed that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is activated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HBV-infected patients, and HBV stimulates MMP-9 expression in macrophages and PBMCs isolated from healthy individuals. MMP-9 plays important roles in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix and in the facilitation of tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. MMP-9 also regulates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) replication, but the mechanism underlying such regulation is unknown. We further demonstrated that MMP-9 facilitates HBV replication by repressing the interferon (IFN)/Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, IFN action, STAT1/2 phosphorylation, and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. Moreover, MMP-9 binds to type I IFN receptor 1 (IFNAR1) and facilitates IFNAR1 phosphorylation, ubiquitination, subcellular distribution, and degradation to interfere with the binding of IFANR1 to IFN-α. Thus, we identified a novel positive-feedback regulation loop between HBV replication and MMP-9 production. On one hand, HBV activates MMP-9 in infected patients and leukocytes. On the other hand, MMP-9 facilitates HBV replication through repressing IFN/JAK/STAT signaling, IFNAR1 function, and IFN-α action. Therefore, HBV may take the advantage of MMP-9 function to establish or maintain chronic infection.IMPORTANCE Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms by which HBV maintains chronic infection are largely unknown. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) plays important roles in the facilitation of tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, the effects of MMP-9 on HBV replication and pathogenesis are not known. This study reveals that MMP-9 expression is activated in patients with CHB, and HBV stimulates MMP-9 production in PBMCs and macrophages. More interestingly, MMP-9 in turn promotes HBV replication through suppressing IFN-α action. Moreover, MMP-9 interacts with type I interferon receptor 1 (IFNAR1) to disturb the binding of IFN-α to IFNAR1 and facilitate the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, subcellular distribution, and degradation of IFNAR1. Therefore, these results discover a novel role of MMP-9 in viral replication and reveal a new mechanism by which HBV evades host immunity to maintain persistent infection.

KEYWORDS:

hepatitis B virus; interferon/Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway; matrix metalloproteinase 9; type I IFN receptor 1

PMID:
28122987
PMCID:
PMC5375666
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.01824-16
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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