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PLoS Genet. 2017 Jan 25;13(1):e1006498. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006498. eCollection 2017 Jan.

Genetic Variation in the Social Environment Contributes to Health and Disease.

Author information

1
European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom.
2
Department of Genetics, Genomics and Informatics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.
3
AP-HP, Hôpital Lariboisière, Department of Biochemistry, INSERM U942, Paris, France.
4
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford, United Kingdom.
5
INRA, UMR 1388 GenPhySE, Castanet Tolosan, France.

Abstract

Assessing the impact of the social environment on health and disease is challenging. As social effects are in part determined by the genetic makeup of social partners, they can be studied from associations between genotypes of one individual and phenotype of another (social genetic effects, SGE, also called indirect genetic effects). For the first time we quantified the contribution of SGE to more than 100 organismal phenotypes and genome-wide gene expression measured in laboratory mice. We find that genetic variation in cage mates (i.e. SGE) contributes to variation in organismal and molecular measures related to anxiety, wound healing, immune function, and body weight. Social genetic effects explained up to 29% of phenotypic variance, and for several traits their contribution exceeded that of direct genetic effects (effects of an individual's genotypes on its own phenotype). Importantly, we show that ignoring SGE can severely bias estimates of direct genetic effects (heritability). Thus SGE may be an important source of "missing heritability" in studies of complex traits in human populations. In summary, our study uncovers an important contribution of the social environment to phenotypic variation, sets the basis for using SGE to dissect social effects, and identifies an opportunity to improve studies of direct genetic effects.

PMID:
28121987
PMCID:
PMC5266220
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1006498
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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