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J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2017 Summer;29(3):267-274. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16050101. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Anti-NMDA Receptor Antibody Positivity and Presentations Without Seizure, Involuntary Movement, Hypoventilation, or Tumor: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

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From the Department of Psychiatry, Okayama Psychiatric Medical Center, Okayama, Japan (BY); the Department of Psychiatry, Okinawa Miyako Hospital, Miyakojima, Japan (BY); and the Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan (BY, MT).


Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis may remain undiagnosed and untreated with immunotherapy. To investigate specific features and responses to immunotherapy of atypical anti-NMDAR antibody positivity patients, the authors reviewed and evaluated previous case reports/series including patients without seizure, involuntary movement, hypoventilation, or tumor. Of 22 patients identified, 21 responded to immunotherapy. Two patients had neurological/motor symptoms with few/no psychiatric/cognitive symptoms, and eight had both. Twelve patients presented with psychiatric/cognitive symptoms with few/no neurological/motor symptoms, and ≥1 had memory impairment, catatonia, abnormal MRI or electroencephalogram results. The authors recommend lumbar puncture and examination of anti-NMDAR antibodies for patients with these features.


Neuroimmunology; Organic Mental Disorders

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