Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr;71(4):458-467. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.232. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with higher vitamin intake and blood vitamin status among European adolescents.

Author information

ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences (INEF), Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon CEDEX, France.
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, Granada University, Granada, Spain.
Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, Cádiz University, Cádiz, Spain.
Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Unit, University of Crete, School of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
Research Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universitaät, Bonn, Germany.
Department of Pediatrics; Private Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), Research Center for Food and Nutrition, Rome 00178, Italy.
Department of Paediatrics, Medical Faculty, University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.
GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research group, Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón).
CIBER: CB12/03/30038 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición, CIBERobn, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.



Current research in adults indicates that fruit and vegetable (FAV) consumption increases serum levels of vitamins C, E and folate of β-carotene and reduces homocysteine concentrations. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of FAV consumption on vitamin intakes and their impact on blood vitamin concentrations in European adolescents.


This multi-center cross-sectional study included 702 (53.7% females) adolescents, aged 12.50-17.49 years, from 10 European cities. Two independent self-administered 24 h dietary recalls were used to estimate the adolescent's diet. The total energy, vitamins and FAV consumption were calculated. Adolescents were categorized into three groups: (i) very low FAV intake (<200 g/day); (ii) low FAV consumption (200-399 g/day) and (iii) adequate FAV consumption (⩾400 g/day). Adolescent's fasted blood samples were taken for their analysis on vitamin concentrations.


The main results showed that those adolescents meeting the FAV recommendation, classified as FAV adequate consumers, presented higher intake of energy and some vitamins as B6, total folic acid, C, E and β-carotene compared with FAV very low consumers (P<0.05). Regarding their blood status, male adolescents who had a very low FAV consumption presented lower plasma folate, RBC folate blood concentrations compared with adequate FAV consumers (P<0.05). Female adequate FAV consumers had higher concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), plasma folate, RBC folate, vitamin C, β-carotene and α-tocopherol compared with very low and low consumers (P<0.05).


Having a FAV dairy intake above 400 g/day is associated with higher vitamin intake and blood vitamin concentrations, especially for antioxidant and B-vitamins concentrations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center