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Front Plant Sci. 2017 Jan 9;7:2044. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.02044. eCollection 2016.

The Interplay of Chromatin Landscape and DNA-Binding Context Suggests Distinct Modes of EIN3 Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS), NovosibirskRussia; Department of Natural Sciences, Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirsk, Russia.
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS), Novosibirsk Russia.
Department of Natural Sciences, Novosibirsk State UniversityNovosibirsk, Russia; Institute of Computer Science, Martin Luther University Halle-WittenbergHalle(Saale), Germany; German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-LeipzigLeipzig, Germany.


The plant hormone ethylene regulates numerous developmental processes and stress responses. Ethylene signaling proceeds via a linear pathway, which activates transcription factor (TF) EIN3, a primary transcriptional regulator of ethylene response. EIN3 influences gene expression upon binding to a specific sequence in gene promoters. This interaction, however, might be considerably affected by additional co-factors. In this work, we perform whole genome bioinformatics study to identify the impact of epigenetic factors in EIN3 functioning. The analysis of publicly available ChIP-Seq data on EIN3 binding in Arabidopsis thaliana showed bimodality of distribution of EIN3 binding regions (EBRs) in gene promoters. Besides a sharp peak in close proximity to transcription start site, which is a common binding region for a wide variety of TFs, we found an additional extended peak in the distal promoter region. We characterized all EBRs with respect to the epigenetic status appealing to previously published genome-wide map of nine chromatin states in A. thaliana. We found that the implicit distal peak was associated with a specific chromatin state (referred to as chromatin state 4 in the primary source), which was just poorly represented in the pronounced proximal peak. Intriguingly, EBRs corresponding to this chromatin state 4 were significantly associated with ethylene response, unlike the others representing the overwhelming majority of EBRs related to the explicit proximal peak. Moreover, we found that specific EIN3 binding sequences predicted with previously described model were enriched in the EBRs mapped to the chromatin state 4, but not to the rest ones. These results allow us to conclude that the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors might cause the distinct modes of EIN3 regulation.


ChIP-Seq; EIN3 binding site (EBS); ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3; Gene Ontology; TEIL; bioinformatics; position weight matrix; transcriptional regulation

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