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Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 Mar;27(3):248-260. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.01.006. Epub 2017 Jan 22.

Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany; University of Neubrandenburg, University of Applied Sciences, Department of Social Work and Education, Brodaer Str. 2, 17033 Neubrandenburg, Germany. Electronic address: franke@hs-nb.de.
2
SOFI, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, SE - 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: patrik.gransmark@sofi.su.se.
3
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: agricola@students.uni-mainz.de.
4
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: schuehle@students.uni-mainz.de.
5
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany; Department of Psychology, Section for Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Mainz, Wallstr. 3, 55122 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: thilo.rommel@googlemail.com.
6
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: alexandra.sebastian@unimedizin-mainz.de.
7
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany; Internistisch-onkologische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Marktplatz 11, 63065 Offenbach am Main, Germany. Electronic address: Harald.Ballo@t-online.de.
8
Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Trials (IZKS), University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: gorbulev@izks-mainz.de.
9
SOFI, Stockholm University, Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University, SE - 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: christer.gerdes@sofi.su.se.
10
University of Kassel, Department of Economics, Nora-Platiel-Str. 4, 34127 Kassel, Germany. Electronic address: frank@uni-kassel.de.
11
Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Trials (IZKS), University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: ruckes@izks-mainz.de.
12
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: oliver.tuescher@unimedizin-mainz.de.
13
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Mainz, Untere Zahlbacher Str. 8, D-55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address: klaus.lieb@unimedizin-mainz.de.

Abstract

Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2×200mg modafinil, 2×20mg methylphenidate, and 2×200mg caffeine or placebo in a 4×4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments. Treatment effects on chess performance were not seen if all games (n=3059) were analysed. Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining 2876 games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes. When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Chess; Cognitive enhancement; Methylphenidate; Modafinil; Stimulants

PMID:
28119083
DOI:
10.1016/j.euroneuro.2017.01.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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