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Environ Mol Mutagen. 2017 Jan;58(1):30-38. doi: 10.1002/em.22069.

A longitudinal study of atrazine and 2,4-D exposure and oxidative stress markers among iowa corn farmers.

Author information

1
Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.
2
Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3508, The Netherlands.
3
Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
4
Samsung Health Research Institute, Samsung Electronics, Yongin-City, 446-711, South Korea.
5
Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
6
Department of Occupational Health Surveillance, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
7
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
8
Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species, potentially formed through environmental exposures, can overwhelm an organism's antioxidant capabilities resulting in oxidative stress. Long-term oxidative stress is linked with chronic diseases. Pesticide exposures have been shown to cause oxidative stress in vivo. We utilized a longitudinal study of corn farmers and non-farming controls in Iowa to examine the impact of exposure to the widely used herbicides atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on markers of oxidative stress. 225 urine samples were collected during five agricultural time periods (pre-planting, planting, growing, harvest, off-season) for 30 farmers who applied pesticides occupationally and 10 controls who did not; all were non-smoking men ages 40-60. Atrazine mercapturate (atrazine metabolite), 2,4-D, and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], and 8-isoprostaglandin-F [8-isoPGF]) were measured in urine. We calculated β estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for each pesticide-oxidative stress marker combination using multivariate linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures. Farmers had higher urinary atrazine mercapturate and 2,4-D levels compared with controls. In regression models, after natural log transformation, 2,4-D was associated with elevated levels of 8-OHdG (β = 0.066, 95%CI = 0.008-0.124) and 8-isoPGF (β = 0.088, 95%CI = 0.004-0.172). 2,4-D may be associated with oxidative stress because of modest increases in 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and 8-isoPGF, a product of lipoprotein peroxidation, with recent 2,4-D exposure. Future studies should investigate the role of 2,4-D-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:30-38, 2017.

KEYWORDS:

agriculture; herbicide; oxidative damage; pesticide

PMID:
28116766
PMCID:
PMC5763550
DOI:
10.1002/em.22069
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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