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J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Dec;53(12):4149-4158. doi: 10.1007/s13197-016-2387-5. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Use of response surface methodology to investigate the effects of brown and golden flaxseed on wheat flour dough microstructure and rheological properties.

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Faculty of Food Engineering, Ştefan cel Mare University, Str. Universităţii nr. 13, 720229 Suceava, Romania.


The aim of this study was to assess the effects of brown flaxseed and golden flaxseed on the water absorption and the rheological parameters of wheat flour. The rheological properties were evaluated by the Mixolab. The optimum parameters were identified for high quality flaxseed-wheat composite flour bread. Each predictor variable was tested at five levels. The microstructure of dough was assessed by epifluorescence light microscopy. The substitution of 4.81/100 g for brown flaxseed and 5.07/100 g for golden flaxseed was found optimal. At the optimum level of brown and golden flaxseed, the water absorption of 55.07/100 g, dough development time of 1.28 min and dough stability of 10.04 min was observed. In terms of protein quality the optimum values were 0.41 N m for C2 and 0.69 for C1-2, and in terms of starch characteristics they were 1.56 N m for C3, 1.14 for C3-2, 1.33 N m for C4, 0.20 for C3-4, 1.97 N m for C5 and 0.60 for C5-4.


Epifluorescence light microscopy; Flaxseed flour; Optimization; Rheological properties; Wheat flour

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