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Cell Reprogram. 2017 Feb;19(1):44-53. doi: 10.1089/cell.2016.0035.

Comparison of Human Amniotic, Chorionic, and Umbilical Cord Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regarding Their Capacity for Differentiation Toward Female Germ Cells.

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1 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .
2 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran .
3 Emergency Department of Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Brojen, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences , Shahrekord, Iran .
4 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences , Zahedan, Iran .
5 Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences , Karaj, Iran .


Placenta harbors a plentiful source of various cells with stem cells or stem-like cell properties, which can be used in therapeutic procedures and research. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted much attention due to their specific differentiation potential and tolerogenic properties. MSCs have been isolated from different parts of placenta; however, in this study, we isolated MSCs from amnion and chorion membrane, as well as umbilical cord (Wharton's jelly [WJ]) and compared their capacity regarding differentiation toward female germ cells under influence of 10‚ÄČng/mL BMP4. All placenta samples were collected from delivering mothers by normal cesarean section and cells were isolated by different methods. Results showed that all isolated cells were mostly positive for the MSC markers CD73, CD166, and CD105, and minimally reacted with CD34 and CD45 (hematopoietic markers). After differentiation induction using third passage cultured cells, immunocytochemistry staining showed that cells were positive for germline cell-related genes Ssea4, Oct4, and Ddx4, and oocyte-related gene Gdf9. RT-qPCR results indicated that human chorion MSCs (hCMSCs) had a greater potential to be differentiated into female germline cells. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that human umbilical cord MSCs originated from either male or female umbilical cord have the same differentiation potential into female germline cells. We recommend that for presumptive application of MSCs for infertility treatment and research, hUMSCs are best candidates due to their higher differentiation potential, ease of proliferation and expansion, and low immunogenicity.


amnion membrane; differentiation potential; germ cells; mesenchymal stem cells; oocyte; umbilical cord

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