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Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):810-818. doi: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1280687.

The fatty acid-rich fraction of Eruca sativa (rocket salad) leaf extract exerts antidiabetic effects in cultured skeletal muscle, adipocytes and liver cells.

Author information

1
a Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Fayoum University , Fayoum , Egypt.
2
b Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy , Beni-Suef University , Beni-Suef , Egypt.
3
c Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Natural Health Products and Metabolic Diseases Laboratory , Université de Montréal , Montréal , Quebec , Canada.
4
d Canadian Institutes of Health Research Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines and Montreal Diabetes Research Center , Montréal , Quebec , Canada.

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Eruca sativa Mill. (Brassicaceae), commonly known as rocket salad, is a popular leafy-green vegetable with many health benefits.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of this plant in major insulin-responsive tissues.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Five E. sativa leaf extracts of varying polarity were prepared (aqueous extract, 70% and 95% ethanol extracts, the n-hexane-soluble fraction of the 95% ethanol extract (ES3) and the defatted 95% ethanol extract). Eruca sativa extracts were investigated through a variety of cell-based in vitro bioassays for antidiabetic activities in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, H4IIE hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Guided by the results of these bioassays, ES3 was fractionated into the saponifiable (SM) and the unspaonifiable (USM) fractions. Glucose uptake was measured using [3H]-deoxy-glucose, while the effects on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and adipogenesis were assessed using Wako AutoKit Glucose and AdipoRed assays, respectively.

RESULTS:

ES3 and its SM fraction significantly stimulated glucose uptake with EC50 values of 8.0 and 5.8 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts significantly inhibited G6Pase activity (IC50 values of 4.8 and 9.3 μg/mL, respectively). Moreover, ES3 and SM showed significant adipogenic activities with EC50 of 4.3 and 6.1 μg/mL, respectively. Fatty acid content of SM was identified by GC-MS. trans-Vaccenic and palmitoleic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids, while palmitic and azelaic acids were the main saturated fatty acids.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

These findings indicate that ES3 and its fatty acid-rich fraction exhibit antidiabetic activities in insulin-responsive cell lines and may hence prove useful for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Brassicaceae; GC-MS; adipogenesis; glucose uptake; glucose-6-phosphatase; insulin resistance; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
28112007
PMCID:
PMC6130626
DOI:
10.1080/13880209.2017.1280687
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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