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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017 Mar;15(3):169-182. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2016.184. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Diversity and evolution of class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems.

Author information

1
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Skolkovo Innovation Center, Skolkovo 143025, Russia.
2
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA.
3
Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
4
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
5
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
6
Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
7
McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
8
Waksman Institute for Microbiology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.
9
Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 123182, Russia.
10
Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge (MIT), Massachusetts 02139, USA.
11
Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Abstract

Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems are characterized by effector modules that consist of a single multidomain protein, such as Cas9 or Cpf1. We designed a computational pipeline for the discovery of novel class 2 variants and used it to identify six new CRISPR-Cas subtypes. The diverse properties of these new systems provide potential for the development of versatile tools for genome editing and regulation. In this Analysis article, we present a comprehensive census of class 2 types and class 2 subtypes in complete and draft bacterial and archaeal genomes, outline evolutionary scenarios for the independent origin of different class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems from mobile genetic elements, and propose an amended classification and nomenclature of CRISPR-Cas.

PMID:
28111461
PMCID:
PMC5851899
DOI:
10.1038/nrmicro.2016.184
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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