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Vet Microbiol. 2017 Feb;199:47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.024. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge.

Author information

1
Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA; Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA. Electronic address: bhause@cambridgetechnologies.net.
2
Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN, USA.
3
Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA; Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
4
Midwest Veterinary Services, Oakland, NE, USA.

Abstract

Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought to investigate the efficacy of an inactivated IDV vaccine. Vaccinated calves seroconverted with hemagglutination inhibition titers 137-169 following two doses. Non-vaccinated calves challenged with a homologous virus exhibited signs of mild respiratory disease from days four to ten post challenge which was significantly different than negative controls at days five and nine post challenge. Peak viral shedding of approximately 5 TCID50/mL was measured in nasal and tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids four to six days post challenge. Viral titers were significantly (P<0.05) decreased 1.4 TCID50/mL, 3.6 TCID50/mL and 5.0 TCID50/mL, respectively, in the aforementioned samples collected from vaccinated animals compared to non-vaccinated controls at peak shedding. Viral antigen was detected in the respiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates and trachea by immunohistochemistry from all unvaccinated calves but in significantly fewer vaccinates. Inflammation characterized by neutrophils was observed in the nasal turbinate and trachea but not appreciably in lungs. Together these results support an etiologic role for IDV in BRD and demonstrate that partial protection is afforded by an inactivated vaccine.

KEYWORDS:

Bovine; Influenza; Pathogenesis; Respiratory disease; Vaccine

PMID:
28110784
DOI:
10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.12.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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