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Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017 May - Jun;70:84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2017.01.005. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Selection of an optimal set of biomarkers and comparative analyses of biological age estimation models in Korean females.

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Department of Information and Communication, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea.
Department of Information and Communication, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Nam-gu, Incheon, 22212, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:


To date, an optimal working model which predicts biological age (BA) with a set of working biomarkers has not been devised to represent the Korean female population. Accuracy of prediction and applicability are required of an optimal set of commonly assessed biomarkers to provide information on the health status. The goal of this study was to identify a set of biomarkers that represent the aging process and to develop and compare different BA prediction models to elucidate the most fitting and applicable model for providing information on health status in the Korean female population. Using a series of selection processes, eight clinically assessable variables were selected by analyzing relations between 31 clinical variables and chronologic age in 912 normal, healthy individuals among 3642 female participants with ages ranging from 30 to 80 years. The multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA), and the Klemera-Doubal (KDM) statistical methods were applied to obtain three different sets of BA prediction models. These three models were assessed by calculating and performing the coefficient determinations (r2), regression slopes, effect sizes, pairwise t-tests, and Bland-Altman plots. The BA models were further compared for the applicability by calculating the BAs of clinical risk groups. MLR showed the narrowing effects at the either ends of the age spectrum with greatest effect sizes. PCA showed the greatest degree of dispersion and deviation from the regression center. These MLR and PCA trends were also exhibited by clinically risk groups. In conclusion, the KDM BA prediction model based on the selected biomarkers was found to provide the most reliable and stable results for the practical assessment of BA.


Biological age; Chronological age; Multiple linear regression; Principle component analysis

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