Send to

Choose Destination
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2017 Feb;32(1):69-76. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2016.11.004. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Increase in the systemic exposure of primary metabolites of Midazolam in rat arising from CYP inhibition or hepatic dysfunction.

Author information

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan.
Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Sanofi K.K., Tokyo, Japan.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:


The main purpose of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of increase in the systemic exposure of drug metabolites by CYP-inhibition or acute hepatitis. Midazolam (MDZ) was used as a model substrate of CYP3A and 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) was used as a CYP-inhibitor. After oral pretreatment with ABT, MDZ was intravenously injected to rats and the plasma profiles of MDZ and its primary metabolites, 1'-hydroxy MDZ and 4-hydroxy MDZ, were observed. In the ABT-pretreatment rats, plasma AUCs of both metabolites were much larger than those in control rats, demonstrating a higher systemic exposure of metabolites under CYP-inhibited condition. Furthermore, kinetic analysis revealed that the amount of both metabolites entered into the systemic circulation increased significantly (about 5-times). Increases in the systemic exposure of the primary metabolites of MDZ were also observed in the acute hepatitis rats induced by CCl4-pretreatment. As underlying mechanisms, it was speculated that ABT inhibited the subsequent metabolism of primary metabolites of MDZ in the hepatocytes and enhanced their release to the systemic circulation. In vitro study with rat liver microsomes supported this speculation. In conclusion, this study showed the complexity of PK profiles of drug metabolites, which might lead to new aspects on their safety issue.


Acute hepatitis; CYP inhibition; Drug–drug interaction; Midazolam; Primary metabolites; Systemic exposure

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center