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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017 Feb 15;9(6):5550-5555. doi: 10.1021/acsami.6b13759. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Newton Output Blocking Force under Low-Voltage Stimulation for Carbon Nanotube-Electroactive Polymer Composite Artificial Muscles.

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Department of Applied Science, National Taitung University , 369, Sec. 2, University Road, Taitung City 95092, Taiwan.
High-Performance Materials Institute, Florida State University , 2005 Levy, Tallahassee, Florida 32310, United States.
3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital , 2 Tuh-Der Road, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan.
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University , No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung City, Taiwan.
Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University , No. 500, Lioufeng Rd., Wufeng, Taichung City, 41354, Taiwan.


This is a study on the development of carbon nanotube-based composite actuators using a new ionic liquid-doped electroactive ionic polymer. For scalable production purposes, a simple hot-pressing method was used. Carbon nanotube/ionic liquid-Nafion/carbon nanotube composite films were fabricated that exhibited a large output blocking force and a stable cycling life with low alternating voltage stimuli in air. Of particular interest and importance, a blocking force of 1.5 N was achieved at an applied voltage of 6 V. Operational durability was confirmed by testing in air for over 30 000 cycles (or 43 h). The superior actuation performance of the carbon nanotube/ionic liquid-Nafion/carbon nanotube composite, coupled with easy manufacturability, low driving voltage, and reliable operation, promises great potential for artificial muscle and biomimetic applications.


blocking force; carbon nanotube buckypaper; composite actuator; electroactive polymers; ionic liquids

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