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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jan 18;14(1). pii: E89. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14010089.

Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

Author information

1
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. akina.shrestha@unibas.ch.
2
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. akina.shrestha@unibas.ch.
3
School of Medical Sciences, Kathmandu University, P.O. Box 11008, Dhulikhel, Nepal. akina.shrestha@unibas.ch.
4
Aquatic Ecology Centre, School of Science, Kathmandu University, P.O. Box 6250, Dhulikhel, Nepal. subodh.sharma@ku.edu.np.
5
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. jana.gerold@unibas.ch.
6
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. jana.gerold@unibas.ch.
7
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. severine.erismann@unibas.ch.
8
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. severine.erismann@unibas.ch.
9
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. sanjay.sagar@unibas.ch.
10
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. sanjay.sagar@unibas.ch.
11
School of Medical Sciences, Kathmandu University, P.O. Box 11008, Dhulikhel, Nepal. rajendrakoju@gmail.com.
12
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. christian.schindler@unibas.ch.
13
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. christian.schindler@unibas.ch.
14
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. peter.odermatt@unibas.ch.
15
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. peter.odermatt@unibas.ch.
16
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch.
17
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch.
18
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. gueladio.cisse@unibas.ch.
19
University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4001 Basel, Switzerland. gueladio.cisse@unibas.ch.

Abstract

This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

KEYWORDS:

Nepal; cross-sectional survey; drinking water quality; hygiene; sanitation; schoolchildren

PMID:
28106779
PMCID:
PMC5295339
DOI:
10.3390/ijerph14010089
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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