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Biochem J. 2017 Mar 8;474(7):1093-1107. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20161050.

Analysis and identification of the Grem2 heparin/heparan sulfate-binding motif.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, Medical Sciences Building, Cincinnati, OH 45267, U.S.A.
2
Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, Medical Sciences Building, Cincinnati, OH 45267, U.S.A. tom.thompson@uc.edu.

Abstract

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are regulated by extracellular antagonists of the DAN (differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma) family. Similar to the BMP ligands, certain DAN family members have been shown to interact with heparin and heparan sulfate (HS). Structural studies of DAN family members Gremlin-1 and Gremlin-2 (Grem2) have revealed a dimeric growth factor-like fold where a series of lysine residues cluster along one face of the protein. In the present study, we used mutagenesis, heparin-binding measurements, and cell surface-binding analysis to identify lysine residues that are important for heparin/HS binding in Grem2. We determined that residues involved in heparin/HS binding, while not necessary for BMP antagonism, merge with the heparin/HS-binding epitope of BMP2. Furthermore, the Grem2-BMP2 complex has higher affinity for heparin than the individual proteins and this affinity is not abrogated when the heparin/HS-binding epitope of Grem2 is attenuated. Overall, the present study shows that the Grem2 heparin/HS and BMP-binding epitopes are unique and independent, where, interestingly, the Grem2-BMP2 complex exhibits a significant increase in binding affinity toward heparin moieties that appear to be partially independent of the Grem2 heparin/HS-binding epitope.

KEYWORDS:

BMP; Gremlin-2; heparin; transforming growth factors

PMID:
28104757
PMCID:
PMC5510646
DOI:
10.1042/BCJ20161050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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