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Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 May;26(5):587-591. doi: 10.1002/pds.4168. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Defined daily doses (DDD) do not accurately reflect opioid doses used in contemporary chronic pain treatment.

Author information

1
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
2
Drug and Alcohol Services, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District, NSW, Australia.
3
School of Medicine (Psychology), University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tas., Australia.
4
Centre for Youth Substance Abuse Research, University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, QLD, Australia.
5
St Vincent's Clinical School, UNSW, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia.
6
Concord Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
7
Discipline of Addiction Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
8
Medicines Policy Research Unit, Centre for Big Data Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
9
School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
10
Murdoch Children's Research Institute, The Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington, VIC, Australia.
11
Department of Global Health, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess how well the defined daily dose (DDD) metric reflects opioid utilisation among chronic non-cancer pain patients.

DESIGN:

Descriptive, cross-sectional study, utilising a 7-day medication diary.

SETTING:

Community-based treatment settings, Australia.

SUBJECTS:

A sample of 1101 people prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain.

METHODS:

Opioid dose data was collected via a self-completed 7-day medication diary capturing names, strengths and doses of each medication taken in the past week. Median daily dose was calculated for each opioid. Comparisons were made to the World Health Organization's (WHO) DDD metric.

RESULTS:

WHO DDDs ranged from 0.6 to 7.1 times the median opioid doses used by the sample. For transdermal fentanyl and oral hydromorphone, the median dose was comparable with the DDD. The DDD for methadone was 0.6 times lower than the median doses used by this sample of chronic pain patients. In contrast, the DDD for oxycodone and transdermal buprenorphine, the most commonly used strong opioids for chronic pain in Australia, was two to seven times higher than actual doses used.

CONCLUSIONS:

For many opioids, there are key differences between the actual doses used in clinical practice and the WHO's DDDs. The interpretation of opioid utilisation studies using population-level DDDs may be limited, and a recalibration of the DDD for many opioids or the reporting of opioid utilisation in oral morphine equivalent doses is recommended. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

KEYWORDS:

chronic pain; defined daily dose (DDD); opioids; oral morphine equivalent

PMID:
28101968
DOI:
10.1002/pds.4168
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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