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PLoS One. 2017 Jan 18;12(1):e0169847. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169847. eCollection 2017.

Genome-Wide Immune Modulation of TLR3-Mediated Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Differs between Single and Multi-Strain Probiotic Combination.

Author information

1
Lallemand Health Solutions Inc., 6100 avenue Royalmount, Montreal, QC, Canada.
2
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada.

Abstract

Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052), Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033) and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071) individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP) purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells' transcriptional profile to poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. Hierarchical heat map clustering, Set Distiller and String analyses revealed that the effects of Lh-R0052 and Bb-R0071 diverged from those of Bl-R0033 and Lh-R0052-SLP. It was evident from the global analyses with respect to the immune, cellular and homeostasis related pathways that the co-challenge with probiotic combination (PC) vastly differed in its effect from the single strains and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments. The multi-strain PC resulted in a greater reduction of modulated genes, found through functional connections between immune and cellular pathways. Cytokine and chemokine analyses based on specific outcomes from the TNF-α and NF-κB signaling pathways revealed single, multi-strain and Lh-R0052-SLP specific attenuation of the majority of proteins measured (TNF-α, IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10), indicating potentially different mechanisms. These findings indicate a synergistic effect of the bacterial combinations relative to the single strain and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments in resolving toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-induced inflammation in IEC and maintaining cellular homeostasis, reinforcing the rationale for using multi-strain formulations as a probiotic.

PMID:
28099447
PMCID:
PMC5242491
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0169847
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

All the authors (CM, OM and PB) declare they are paid employees in the Research and Development sector of Lallemand Health Solutions Inc. PS is a paid consultant to Lallemand Health Solutions Inc. Lallemand Health Solutions Inc. is a privately-owned company that researches, manufactures and sells probiotic microbes business-to-business, not directly to the consumer. This commercial affiliation does not alter our adherence to all PLOS ONE policies on sharing our data and materials.

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