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Infect Dis Poverty. 2017 Jan 18;6(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s40249-016-0220-z.

Efficacy of PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 nets against laboratory-reared and wild Anopheles gambiae sensu lato populations in northern Tanzania.

Author information

1
Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Division of Livestock and Human Diseases Vector Control, Mosquito Section, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania. pat.kweka@gmail.com.
2
Department of Medical Parasitology and Entomology, Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 1464, Mwanza, Tanzania. pat.kweka@gmail.com.
3
Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Division of Livestock and Human Diseases Vector Control, Mosquito Section, P.O. Box 3024, Arusha, Tanzania.
4
Tropical Pesticides Research Institute, Division of Livestock and Human Diseases Vector Control, Mabogini field station, Moshi, Tanzania.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Mosquitoes have developed resistance against pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides approved for use on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of the pyrethroid synergist PermaNet® 3.0 LLIN versus the pyrethroid-only PermaNet® 2.0 LLIN, in an East African hut design in Lower Moshi, northern Tanzania. In this setting, resistance to pyrethroid insecticides has been identified in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

METHODS:

Standard World Health Organization bioefficacy evaluations were conducted in both laboratory and experimental huts. Experimental hut evaluations were conducted in an area where there was presence of a population of highly pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis mosquitoes. All nets used were subjected to cone bioassays and then to experimental hut trials. Mosquito mortality, blood-feeding inhibition and personal protection rate were compared between untreated nets, unwashed LLINs and LLINs that were washed 20 times.

RESULTS:

Both washed and unwashed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 LLINs had knockdown and mortality rates of 100% against a susceptible strain of An. gambiae sensu stricto. The adjusted mortality rate of the wild mosquito population after use of the unwashed PermaNet® 3.0 and PermaNet® 2.0 nets was found to be higher than after use of the washed PermaNet® 2.0 and PermaNet® 3.0 nets.

CONCLUSIONS:

Given the increasing incidence of pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae mosquitoes in Tanzania, we recommend that consideration is given to its distribution in areas with pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors within the framework of a national insecticide-resistance management plan.

KEYWORDS:

Anopheles gambiae; Exophily; Experimental hut; Long-lasting insecticidal nets; Mortality; Personal protection rate; Resistance; Tanzania

PMID:
28095897
PMCID:
PMC5242039
DOI:
10.1186/s40249-016-0220-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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