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Psychiatry Res. 2017 Mar;249:120-124. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.014. Epub 2017 Jan 5.

Minor physical anomalies in bipolar I and bipolar II disorders - Results with the Méhes Scale.

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Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Pécs, Faculty of Medicine, Rét u.2.H-7623, Pécs, Hungary.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pécs, Faculty of Medicine, Pécs, Hungary.
Institute of Nursing and Patients Care, Faculty of Health Sciences,University of Pécs, Hungary.
Department of Clinical and Theoretical Mental Health, Semmelweis University, Faculty of Medicine, Hungary.
Institute of Physical Education and Sport Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Pécs, Hungary.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Pécs, Faculty of Medicine, Rét u.2.H-7623, Pécs, Hungary. Electronic address:


Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are external markers of abnormal brain development, so the more common appearence of these signs among bipolar I and bipolar II patients can confirm the possibility of a neurodevelopmental deficit in these illnesses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and topological profile of minor physical anomalies in patients with bipolar I and - first in literature - with bipolar II disorders compared to matched healthy control subjects. Using a list of 57 minor physical anomalies (the Méhes Scale), 30 bipolar I and 30 bipolar II patients, while as a comparison 30 matched healthy control subjects were examined. Significant differences were detected between the three groups comparing the total number of minor physical anomalies, minor malformations and phenogenetic variants and in the cases of the ear and the mouth regions. The individual analyses of the 57 minor physical anomalies by simultaneous comparison of the three groups showed, that in the cases of furrowed tongue and high arched palate were significant differences between the three groups. The results can promote the concept, that a neurodevelopmental deficit may play a role in the etiology of both bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.


Biological markers; Bipolar I and II disorders; Neurodevelopment; Psychotic disorders

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