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J Viral Hepat. 2017 Jul;24(7):608-612. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12676. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Persistence of antibody to Hepatitis A virus 20 years after receipt of Hepatitis A vaccine in Alaska.

Author information

1
Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Anchorage, AK, USA.
2
Epidemiology and Statistics Branch, Division of Viral Hepatitis, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
3
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, USA.

Abstract

Hepatitis A vaccine is recommended for children ≥1 year old to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, the duration of vaccine-induced immunity is unknown. We evaluated a cohort of Alaska Native persons 20 years after HAV vaccination. Children aged 3-6 years had been previously randomized to receive three doses of HAV vaccine (360 ELISA units/dose) at: (i) 0,1,2 months; (ii) 0,1,6 months; and (iii) 0,1,12 months. We measured anti-HAV antibody concentrations every 2-3 years; described geometric mean concentrations (GMC) and the proportion with protective antibody (≥20 mIU mL-1 ) over time; and modelled the change in GMC using fractional polynomial regression. Of the 144 participants, after 20 years 52 (36.1%) were available for the follow-up (17, 18, 17 children in Groups A, B and C, respectively). Overall, 46 (88.5%) of 52 available participants had anti-HAV antibody concentrations ≥20 mIU mL-1 , and overall GMC was 107 mIU mL-1 . Although GMC levels were lower in Group A (60; CI 34-104) than in Group B (110; CI 68-177) or Group C (184; CI 98-345) (B vs C: P=.168; A vs B/C: P=.011), there was no difference between groups after adjusting for peak antibody levels post-vaccination (P=.579). Models predicted geometric mean concentrations of 124 mIU mL-1 after 25 years, and 106 mIU mL-1 after 30 years. HAV vaccine provides protective antibody levels 20 years after childhood vaccination. Lower antibody levels in Group A may be explained by a lower initial peak response. Our results suggest a booster vaccine dose is unnecessary for at least 25-30 years.

KEYWORDS:

Hepatitis A; Hepatitis A vaccine; duration of protection; immunogenicity; infectious hepatitis

PMID:
28092416
DOI:
10.1111/jvh.12676
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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