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J Sports Sci. 2018 Jan;36(1):23-32. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1276613. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Development, construct validity and test-retest reliability of a field-based wheelchair mobility performance test for wheelchair basketball.

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a Faculty Health, Nutrition & Sport , The Hague University of Applied Sciences , The Hague , the Netherlands.
b Department of Human Movement Sciences , Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute , Amsterdam , the Netherlands.
c Department of Biomechanical Engineering , University of Technology , Delft , the Netherlands.
d Centre for Human Movement Sciences , University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen , Groningen , the Netherlands.
e Centre for Rehabilitation , University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen , Groningen , the Netherlands.


The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of wheelchair basketball matches and expert judgement. Forty-six players performed the test to determine its validity and 23 players performed the test twice for reliability. Independent-samples t-tests were used to assess whether the times needed to complete the test were different for classifications, playing standards and sex. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to quantify reliability of performance times. Males performed better than females (P < 0.001, effect size [ES] = -1.26) and international men performed better than national men (P < 0.001, ES = -1.62). Performance time of low (≤2.5) and high (≥3.0) classification players was borderline not significant with a moderate ES (P = 0.06, ES = 0.58). The reliability was excellent for overall performance time (ICC = 0.95). These results show that the test can be used as a standardised mobility performance test to validly and reliably assess the capacity in mobility performance of elite wheelchair basketball athletes. Furthermore, the described methodology of development is recommended for use in other sports to develop sport-specific tests.


Skill performance; paralympic; task performance and analysis; wheelchairs

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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