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Mol Neurobiol. 2018 Feb;55(2):1026-1044. doi: 10.1007/s12035-016-0357-6. Epub 2017 Jan 14.

Epigenetics in Alzheimer's Disease: Perspective of DNA Methylation.

Author information

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Separation and Analysis in Biomedical and Pharmaceuticals, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
2
Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.
3
Beijing Key Laboratory of Separation and Analysis in Biomedical and Pharmaceuticals, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, People's Republic of China. hqing@bit.edu.cn.

Abstract

Research over the years has shown that causes of Alzheimer's disease are not well understood, but over the past years, the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the developing memory formation either under pathological or physiological conditions has become clear. The term epigenetics represents the heredity of changes in phenotype that are independent of altered DNA sequences. Different studies validated that cytosine methylation of genomic DNA decreases with age in different tissues of mammals, and therefore, the role of epigenetic factors in developing neurological disorders in aging has been under focus. In this review, we summarized and reviewed the involvement of different epigenetic mechanisms especially the DNA methylation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), and autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). Down to the minutest of details, we tried to discuss the methylation patterns like mitochondrial DNA methylation and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) methylation. Additionally, we mentioned some therapeutic approaches related to epigenetics, which could provide a potential cure for AD. Moreover, we reviewed some recent studies that validate DNA methylation as a potential biomarker and its role in AD. We hope that this review will provide new insights into the understanding of AD pathogenesis from the epigenetic perspective especially from the perspective of DNA methylation.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; DNA methylation; Epigenetic factors; Histone modifications; mtDNA methylation; ncRNAs

PMID:
28092081
DOI:
10.1007/s12035-016-0357-6

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