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Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec;116(12):2160-2168. doi: 10.1017/S000711451600430X. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

The effects of flavanone-rich citrus juice on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow: an acute, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy, young adults.

Author information

1
1School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences,University of Reading,Reading RG6 6AL,UK.
2
2Molecular Nutrition Group,School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy,University of Reading,Reading RG6 6AP,UK.
3
3PepsiCo,100 Summit Lake Drive,Valhalla,NY 10595,USA.

Abstract

A plausible mechanism underlying flavonoid-associated cognitive effects is increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, behavioural and CBF effects following flavanone-rich juice consumption have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of flavanone-rich juice is associated with acute cognitive benefits and increased regional CBF in healthy, young adults. An acute, single-blind, randomised, cross-over design was applied with two 500-ml drink conditions - high-flavanone (HF; 70ยท5 mg) drink and an energy-, and vitamin C- matched, zero-flavanone control. A total of twenty-four healthy young adults aged 18-30 years underwent cognitive testing at baseline and 2-h after drink consumption. A further sixteen, healthy, young adults were recruited for functional MRI assessment, whereby CBF was measured with arterial spin labelling during conscious resting state at baseline as well as 2 and 5 h after drink consumption. The HF drink was associated with significantly increased regional perfusion in the inferior and middle right frontal gyrus at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink. In addition, the HF drink was associated with significantly improved performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink, but no effects were observed on any other behavioural cognitive tests. These results demonstrate that consumption of flavanone-rich citrus juice in quantities commonly consumed can acutely enhance blood flow to the brain in healthy, young adults. However, further studies are required to establish a direct causal link between increased CBF and enhanced behavioural outcomes following citrus juice ingestion.

KEYWORDS:

CBF cerebral blood flow; CT control; DSST Digit Symbol Substitution Test; HF high flavanone; fMRI functional MRI; Cerebral blood flow; Cognition; Cognitive function; Flavonoids; Functional MRI; Juices

PMID:
28091350
DOI:
10.1017/S000711451600430X
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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