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Cell Biochem Funct. 2017 Jan;35(1):12-32. doi: 10.1002/cbf.3247.

Mechanistic insight into nuclear receptor-mediated regulation of bile acid metabolism and lipid homeostasis by grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE).

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Department of Agriculture, Nutrition and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA.


Dietary procyanidins have emerged as important bioactive components that regulate various metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE), in particular, has demonstrated regulatory effects on bile acid and lipid metabolism in vivo. While numerous studies in rodent models have shown the potent hypolipidemic action of grape seed extracts, human studies have shown inconsistent results. This review will focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic actions of GSPE identified to date, specifically highlighting the effects exerted via nuclear receptors. Such evidence may provide avenues for future research in human subjects with GSPE as a therapeutic treatment for the prevention and amelioration of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.


bile acids; cholesterol; nuclear receptors; procyanidins; triglycerides

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