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World J Hepatol. 2016 Dec 28;8(36):1602-1609. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v8.i36.1602.

Restructuring of the vascular bed in response to hemodynamic disturbances in portal hypertension.

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Dmitry Victorovich Garbuzenko, Nikolay Olegovich Arefyev, Department of Faculty Surgery, South Ural State Medical University, 454092 Chelyabinsk, Russia.


In recent years, defined progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of hemodynamic disturbances occurring in liver cirrhosis, which are based on portal hypertension. In addition to pathophysiological disorders related to endothelial dysfunction, it was revealed: There is the restructuring of the vasculature, which includes vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. In spite of the fact that these changes are the compensatory-adaptive response to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation, taken together, they contribute to the development and progression of portal hypertension causing severe complications such as bleeding from esophageal varices. Disruption of systemic and organ hemodynamics and the formation of portosystemic collaterals in portal hypertension commence with neovascularization and splanchnic vasodilation due to the hypoxia of the small intestine mucosa. In this regard, the goal of comprehensive treatment may be to influence on the chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor and others) that lead to the development of these disorders. This review is to describe the mechanisms of restructuring of the vascular bed in response to hemodynamic disturbances in portal hypertension. Development of pathogenetic methods, which allow correcting portal hypertension, will improve the efficiency of conservative therapy aimed at prevention and treatment of its inherent complications.


Angiogenesis; Liver cirrhosis; Pathogenesis; Portal hypertension; Vascular remodeling

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Conflict-of-interest statement: No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

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