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Neurochem Res. 2017 May;42(5):1299-1307. doi: 10.1007/s11064-016-2171-y. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.

Author information

1
Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, People's Republic of China.
2
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
3
Minimally Invasive Urology Center, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China.
4
Health and Family Planning Commission, Shandong Province Medical Guidance Center, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China. tianyinwang001@126.com.

Abstract

Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 treatment prevented LPS-induced decrease of acetylcholine (ACh) levels and increase of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Ginsenoside Rg1 treatment also reverted the decrease of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus of LPS-treated rats. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 has protective effect against LPS-induced cognitive deficit and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in cholinergic system is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

KEYWORDS:

Acetylcholine; Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; Cognitive impairment; Ginsenoside Rg1; Lipopolysaccharide

PMID:
28078612
DOI:
10.1007/s11064-016-2171-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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