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Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2016 Dec;21(4):310-316. doi: 10.3746/pnf.2016.21.4.310. Epub 2016 Dec 31.

The Evaluation of the Effect of Herbal Extract on Osteoarthritis: In Vitro and In Vivo Study.

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Jeonnam Institute of Natural Resources Research, Jeonnam 59338, Korea.
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.


In this study, the anti-osteoarthritis effects of Cynanchum wilfordii, Phlomis umbrosa, and Angelica gigas extract (CPAE), observed and confirmed in previously clinical studies were further investigated by in vitro and in vivo studies. Anabolic biomarkers related to healthy cartilage maintenance, such as aggrecan, type II collagen α-1 (Col2a1), sex determining region Y-box-9 (Sox-9), and catabolic biomarkers related to osteoarthritis, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), matrix metalloproteinase-13 (Mmp13), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (Nfκb), were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and reporter gene assay. In vitro study results showed significant changes in both anabolic and catabolic biomarkers. For anabolic factors, significant changes in the level of aggrecan (P<0.05), Col2a1 (P<0.05), and Sox-9 (P<0.01) activation were shown after treatment of cartilage cells with CPAE (50 ng/mL) with similar efficacy compared to insulin growth factor, the positive control (100 ng/mL). For catabolic factors, significant changes in the inhibition activity of Cox-2 (P<0.05), Mmp13 (P<0.01), and Nfκb (P<0.05) were shown for CPAE (50 ng/mL) with similar efficacy compared to Celecoxib, the positive control (10 μM). In the in vivo carrageenan-induced paw edema model study results showed that CPAE-treated groups (100 mg/kg) and Celecoxib-treated groups (60 mg/kg) showed comparably significant efficacy of inhibition by 37.1% and 52.1%, respectively. Furthermore, CPAE (200 mg/kg) showed similar effect to Celecoxib (60 mg/kg) with an inhibition rate of 54.3%. This result confirms that CPAE effectively inhibited the inflammation-induced osteoarthritis symptoms.


Cynanchum wilfordii; Mmp; Sox-9; anti-osteoarthritis; edema

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