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J Radiat Res. 2017 May 1;58(3):313-328. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rrw118.

A feasibility study on the use of phantoms with statistical lung masses for determining the uncertainty in the dose absorbed by the lung from broad beams of incident photons and neutrons.

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Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1436, Iran.


Computational models of the human body have gradually become crucial in the evaluation of doses absorbed by organs. However, individuals may differ considerably in terms of organ size and shape. In this study, the authors sought to determine the energy-dependent standard deviations due to lung size of the dose absorbed by the lung during external photon and neutron beam exposures. One hundred lungs with different masses were prepared and located in an adult male International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantom. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo N-particle code version 5 (MCNP5). Variation in the lung mass caused great uncertainty: ~90% for low-energy broad parallel photon beams. However, for high-energy photons, the lung-absorbed dose dependency on the anatomical variation was reduced to <1%. In addition, the results obtained indicated that the discrepancy in the lung-absorbed dose varied from 0.6% to 8% for neutron beam exposure. Consequently, the relationship between absorbed dose and organ volume was found to be significant for low-energy photon sources, whereas for higher energy photon sources the organ-absorbed dose was independent of the organ volume. In the case of neutron beam exposure, the maximum discrepancy (of 8%) occurred in the energy range between 0.1 and 5 MeV.


MCNP5; broad parallel beams; lung-absorbed dose; mono-energetic photon and neutron exposures; statistical phantom

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