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Vaccine. 2017 Feb 7;35(6):987-992. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.12.004. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Testing of a palatable bait and compatible vaccine carrier for the oral vaccination of European badgers (Meles meles) against tuberculosis.

Author information

1
Bacteriology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK. Electronic address: Sonya.Gowtage@apha.gsi.gov.uk.
2
Bacteriology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK. Electronic address: Gareth.a.Williams@apha.gsi.gov.uk.
3
Pest-Tech Ltd., Branch Drain Road, Brookside, RD2 Leeston, New Zealand. Electronic address: Pest-Tech@hotmail.com.
4
Connovation Ltd., East Tamaki, Manukau 2013, New Zealand. Electronic address: paul@connovation.co.nz.
5
Connovation Ltd., East Tamaki, Manukau 2013, New Zealand. Electronic address: duncan@connovation.co.nz.
6
Bacteriology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK. Electronic address: Si.Palmer@apha.gsi.gov.uk.
7
National Wildlife Management Centre, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire GL10 3UJ, UK; Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK. Electronic address: Andy.Robertson@apha.gsi.gov.uk.
8
Bacteriology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK. Electronic address: Sandrine.Lesellier@apha.gsi.gov.uk.
9
National Wildlife Management Centre, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire GL10 3UJ, UK. Electronic address: Steve.Carter@apha.gsi.gov.uk.
10
Bacteriology Department, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK; School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, Vet School Main Building, Daphne Jackson Road, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7AL, UK. Electronic address: Mark.Chambers@apha.gsi.gov.uk.

Abstract

The oral vaccination of wild badgers (Meles meles) with live Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is one of the tools being considered for the control of bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) in the UK. The design of a product for oral vaccination requires that numerous, and often competing, conditions are met. These include the need for a highly palatable, but physically stable bait that will meet regulatory requirements, and one which is also compatible with the vaccine formulation; in this case live BCG. In collaboration with two commercial bait companies we have developed a highly attractive and palatable bait recipe designed specifically for European badgers (Meles meles) that meets these requirements. The palatability of different batches of bait was evaluated against a standardised palatable control bait using captive badgers. The physical properties of the bait are described e.g. firmness and colour. The microbial load in the bait was assessed against European and US Pharmacopoeias. The bait was combined with an edible vaccine carrier made of hydrogenated peanut oil in which BCG vaccine was stable during bait manufacture and cold storage, demonstrating <0.5 log10 reduction in titre after 117weeks' storage at -20°C. BCG stability in bait was also evaluated at +4°C and under simulated environmental conditions (20°C, 98% Relative Humidity; RH). Finally, iophenoxic acid biomarkers were utilised as a surrogate for the BCG vaccine, to test variants of the vaccine-bait design for their ability to deliver biomarker to the gastrointestinal tract of individual animals. These data provide the first detailed description of a bait-vaccine delivery system developed specifically for the oral vaccination of badgers against Mycobacterium bovis using live BCG.

KEYWORDS:

BCG; Badger; Bait; Oral vaccination; Tuberculosis

PMID:
28077246
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.12.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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