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PLoS One. 2017 Jan 11;12(1):e0169811. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169811. eCollection 2017.

A Device-Independent Evaluation of Carbonyl Emissions from Heated Electronic Cigarette Solvents.

Author information

1
Indoor Air Quality Program, Environmental Health Laboratory, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, United States of America.
2
Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
3
Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka, Japan.
4
Exposure Assessment Section, Environmental Health Investigation Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, California, United States of America.
5
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate how the two main electronic (e-) cigarette solvents-propylene glycol (PG) and glycerol (GL)-modulate the formation of toxic volatile carbonyl compounds under precisely controlled temperatures in the absence of nicotine and flavor additives.

METHODS:

PG, GL, PG:GL = 1:1 (wt/wt) mixture, and two commercial e-cigarette liquids were vaporized in a stainless steel, tubular reactor in flowing air ranging up to 318°C to simulate e-cigarette vaping. Aerosols were collected and analyzed to quantify the amount of volatile carbonyls produced with each of the five e-liquids.

RESULTS:

Significant amounts of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected at reactor temperatures ≥215°C for both PG and GL. Acrolein was observed only in e-liquids containing GL when reactor temperatures exceeded 270°C. At 318°C, 2.03±0.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.35±0.87 μg of acetaldehyde, and a trace amount of acetone were generated per milligram of PG; at the same temperature, 21.1±3.80 μg of formaldehyde, 2.40±0.99 μg of acetaldehyde, and 0.80±0.50 μg of acrolein were detected per milligram of GL.

CONCLUSIONS:

We developed a device-independent test method to investigate carbonyl emissions from different e-cigarette liquids under precisely controlled temperatures. PG and GL were identified to be the main sources of toxic carbonyl compounds from e-cigarette use. GL produced much more formaldehyde than PG. Besides formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measurable amounts of acrolein were also detected at ≥270°C but only when GL was present in the e-liquid. At 215°C, the estimated daily exposure to formaldehyde from e-cigarettes, exceeded United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) acceptable limits, which emphasized the need to further examine the potential cancer and non-cancer health risks associated with e-cigarette use.

PMID:
28076380
PMCID:
PMC5226727
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0169811
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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