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J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 1999 May;49(5):498-519. doi: 10.1080/10473289.1999.10463827.

Assessment of Nontailpipe Hydrocarbon Emissions from Motor Vehicles.

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a Desert Research Institute , Reno , Nevada , USA.
b National Renewable Energy Laboratory , Golden , Colorado , USA.
c TVA Environmental Research Center , Muscle Shoals , Alabama , USA.


This report evaluates tailpipe and nontailpipe hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from light-duty spark-ignition (SI) vehicles. The sources of information were unpublished data sets, generated mainly from 1990 through 1994, on emissions from volunteer fleets of in-use vehicles in chassis dynamometer and sealed housing for evaporative determination tests, and published chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionments of HC in roadway tunnels and in urban air. The nontailpipe emissions evaluated comprise running-loss, hot soak, diurnal emissions, and resting-loss emissions. Relations between pressure and purge test failures and actual nontailpipe emissions were also examined.

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