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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jan 24;114(4):E448-E456. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1614193114. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Charge-altering releasable transporters (CARTs) for the delivery and release of mRNA in living animals.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.
3
Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; ccontag@stanford.edu wenderp@stanford.edu waymouth@stanford.edu.
5
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.
6
Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.
7
Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.
8
Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305; ccontag@stanford.edu wenderp@stanford.edu waymouth@stanford.edu.
9
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.

Abstract

Functional delivery of mRNA to tissues in the body is key to implementing fundamentally new and potentially transformative strategies for vaccination, protein replacement therapy, and genome editing, collectively affecting approaches for the prevention, detection, and treatment of disease. Broadly applicable tools for the efficient delivery of mRNA into cultured cells would advance many areas of research, and effective and safe in vivo mRNA delivery could fundamentally transform clinical practice. Here we report the step-economical synthesis and evaluation of a tunable and effective class of synthetic biodegradable materials: charge-altering releasable transporters (CARTs) for mRNA delivery into cells. CARTs are structurally unique and operate through an unprecedented mechanism, serving initially as oligo(α-amino ester) cations that complex, protect, and deliver mRNA and then change physical properties through a degradative, charge-neutralizing intramolecular rearrangement, leading to intracellular release of functional mRNA and highly efficient protein translation. With demonstrated utility in both cultured cells and animals, this mRNA delivery technology should be broadly applicable to numerous research and therapeutic applications.

KEYWORDS:

cell-penetrating; gene therapy; nanoparticle; organocatalysis; stimuli-responsive

PMID:
28069945
PMCID:
PMC5278438
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1614193114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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