Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Injury. 2017 Feb;48(2):332-338. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2017.01.008. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Disparities in access to trauma care in the United States: A population-based analysis.

Author information

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address: brendan.carr@jefferson.edu.
2
Department of Emergency Medicine, LAC + USC Medical Center, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States. Electronic address: arieljbowman@gmail.com.
3
School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States. Electronic address: wolff3@email.unc.edu.
4
Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA,United States. Electronic address: michael.mullen@uphs.upenn.edu.
5
Department of Surgery; Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address: holenad@upenn.edu.
6
Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Surgery; Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Emergency Care Policy & Research, Department of Emergency Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address: cbranas@upenn.edu.
7
Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Surgery; Division of Traumatology, Surgical Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Emergency Care Policy & Research, Department of Emergency Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Emergency Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address: dwiebe@upenn.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Injury is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States. Accordingly, expanding access to trauma care is a Healthy People priority. The extent to which disparities in access to trauma care exist in the US is unknown. Our objective was to describe geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic disparities in access to trauma care in the United States.

METHODS:

Cross-sectional study of the US population in 2010 using small units of geographic analysis and validated estimates of population access to a Level I or II trauma center within 60minutes via ambulance or helicopter. We examined the association between geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors and trauma center access, with subgroup analyses of urban-rural disparities.

RESULTS:

Of the 309 million people in the US in 2010, 29.7 million lacked access to trauma care. Across the country, areas with higher income were significantly more likely to have access (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.50), as were major cities (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.25-3.62) and suburbs (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.57). Areas with higher rates of uninsured (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.07-0.11) and Medicaid or Medicare eligible patients (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.59-0.82) were less likely to have access. Areas with higher proportions of blacks and non-whites were more likely to have access (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19-1.58), as were areas with higher proportions of Hispanics and foreign-born persons (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.13-2.01). Overall, rurality was associated with significantly lower access to trauma care (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.18-0.23).

CONCLUSION:

While the majority of the United States has access to trauma care within an hour, almost 30 million US residents do not. Significant disparities in access were evident for vulnerable populations defined by insurance status, income, and rurality.

KEYWORDS:

Health services geographic accessibility; Health services research; Healthcare disparities; Trauma centers

PMID:
28069138
PMCID:
PMC5292279
DOI:
10.1016/j.injury.2017.01.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center