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ACS Nano. 2017 Jan 24;11(1):12-18. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.6b08244. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Mechanisms and Barriers in Cancer Nanomedicine: Addressing Challenges, Looking for Solutions.

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Laboratory of Membrane and Liposome Research, IMRIC, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School , Jerusalem 91120, Israel.
Institute of Protein Biochemistry, National Research Council , 80131 Napoli, Italy.
Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
Laboratory of Nanotechnology for Precision Medicine, Fondazione Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia , 16163 Genoa, Italy.
Nanotechnology Characterization Lab, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research , Frederick, Maryland 21702, United States.
Biotrends International, Denver Technological Center , Greenwood Village, Colorado 80111, United States.
University College, University of Denver , Denver, Colorado 80208, United States.
Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.
Oncology Institute, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, and Hebrew University-School of Medicine , Jerusalem 9103102, Israel.
Departments of Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Chemistry and of Bioengineering, University of Utah , Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, United States.
Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute , Houston, Texas 77030, United States.
Departments of Immunotherapeutics and Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center , Abilene, Texas 79601, United States.
Nanomedicine Research Center, Departments of Neurosurgery and of Biomedical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center , Los Angeles, California 90048, United States.
School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Durham University , Queen's Campus, Stockton-On-Tees TS17 6BH, United Kingdom.
Siva Therapeutics Inc., Austin, Texas 78759, United States.
Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology , Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.
Departments of Cell Research and Immunology and of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.
Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute , La Jolla, California 92037, United States.


Remarkable progress has recently been made in the synthesis and characterization of engineered nanoparticles for imaging and treatment of cancers, resulting in several promising candidates in clinical trials. Despite these advances, clinical applications of nanoparticle-based therapeutic/imaging agents remain limited by biological, immunological, and translational barriers. In order to overcome the existing status quo in drug delivery, there is a need for open and frank discussion in the nanomedicine community on what is needed to make qualitative leaps toward translation. In this Nano Focus, we present the main discussion topics and conclusions from a recent workshop: "Mechanisms and Barriers in Nanomedicine". The focus of this informal meeting was on biological, toxicological, immunological, and translational aspects of nanomedicine and approaches to move the field forward productively. We believe that these topics reflect the most important issues in cancer nanomedicine.

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