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Front Neurol. 2016 Dec 19;7:229. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00229. eCollection 2016.

Spatiotemporal Mapping of Interictal Spike Propagation: A Novel Methodology Applied to Pediatric Intracranial EEG Recordings.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia , Philadelphia, PA , USA.
3
Department of Neurology and Neurological Science, Stanford School of Medicine , Palo Alto, CA , USA.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Abstract

Synchronized cortical activity is implicated in both normative cognitive functioning and many neurologic disorders. For epilepsy patients with intractable seizures, irregular synchronization within the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is believed to provide the network substrate through which seizures initiate and propagate. Mapping the EZ prior to epilepsy surgery is critical for detecting seizure networks in order to achieve postsurgical seizure control. However, automated techniques for characterizing epileptic networks have yet to gain traction in the clinical setting. Recent advances in signal processing and spike detection have made it possible to examine the spatiotemporal propagation of interictal spike discharges across the epileptic cortex. In this study, we present a novel methodology for detecting, extracting, and visualizing spike propagation and demonstrate its potential utility as a biomarker for the EZ. Eighteen presurgical intracranial EEG recordings were obtained from pediatric patients ultimately experiencing favorable (i.e., seizure-free, n = 9) or unfavorable (i.e., seizure-persistent, n = 9) surgical outcomes. Novel algorithms were applied to extract multichannel spike discharges and visualize their spatiotemporal propagation. Quantitative analysis of spike propagation was performed using trajectory clustering and spatial autocorrelation techniques. Comparison of interictal propagation patterns revealed an increase in trajectory organization (i.e., spatial autocorrelation) among Sz-Free patients compared with Sz-Persist patients. The pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of these findings are considered.

KEYWORDS:

epilepsy surgery; epileptogenic zone; interictal spike propagation; pediatric epilepsy; surgical outcome

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