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Front Pharmacol. 2016 Dec 21;7:490. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00490. eCollection 2016.

Grape Seed Extract Attenuates Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Virus-Induced Inflammation.

Author information

1
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
2
Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung UniversityTainan, Taiwan; Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung UniversityTainan, Taiwan.
3
Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiung, Taiwan; Institute of Biomedical Science, National Sun Yat-Sen UniversityKaohsiung, Taiwan.
4
Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology, College of Marine Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
5
Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Kaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiung, Taiwan; Research Center for Natural Products and Drug Development, Kaohsiung Medical UniversityKaohsiung, Taiwan.

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a causative factor leading to hepatocellular carcinoma due to chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. The aim of the study was first to explore the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) in HCV replication, and then to study mechanisms. The results indicated that a GSE treatment showed significant anti-HCV activity and suppressed HCV-elevated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. In contrast, exogenous COX-2 expression gradually attenuated antiviral effects of GSE, suggesting that GSE inhibited HCV replication by suppressing an aberrant COX-2 expression caused by HCV, which was correlated with the inactivation of IKK-regulated NF-κB and MAPK/ERK/JNK signaling pathways. In addition, GSE also attenuated HCV-induced inflammatory cytokine gene expression. Notably, a combined administration of GSE with interferon or other FDA-approved antiviral drugs revealed a synergistic anti-HCV effect. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the possibility of developing GSE as a dietary supplement to treat patients with a chronic HCV infection.

KEYWORDS:

cyclooxygenase-2; grape seed extract; hepatitis C virus; inflammation; viral replication

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