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Clin Radiol. 2017 Mar;72(3):179-188. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2016.11.016. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Imaging and reporting considerations for suspected physical abuse (non-accidental injury) in infants and young children. Part 1: initial considerations and appendicular skeleton.

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Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK. Electronic address:
Department of Radiology, Sheffield Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TH, UK.
Academic Unit of Child Health, University of Sheffield, Stephenson Wing, Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TH, UK.


Recognising the skeletal manifestations of inflicted injury (II) in infants and young children is of crucial importance. There are specific fracture patterns which are highly suspicious of II in addition to common differential diagnoses with which radiologists should be familiar. Our objective is to provide a non-exhaustive review of the important factors relevant to the imaging and reporting of II as a platform for further learning. Part 1 encompasses important initial considerations and fracture patterns of the appendicular skeleton.

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