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J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Jan 6;6(1). pii: e004547. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.116.004547.

Mean Dietary Salt Intake in Urban and Rural Areas in India: A Population Survey of 1395 Persons.

Author information

1
The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia cjohnson@georgeinstitute.org.au.
2
The University of Sydney, Australia.
3
Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India.
4
The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia.
5
Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi, India.
6
George Institute for Global Health, Hyderabad, India.
7
Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom.
8
Barts and the London School of Medicine & Dentistry Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom.
9
All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
10
Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Australia.
11
Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.
12
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The scientific evidence base in support of population-wide salt reduction is strong, but current high-quality data about salt intake levels in India are mostly absent. This project sought to estimate daily salt consumption levels in selected communities of Delhi and Haryana in north India and Andhra Pradesh in south India.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In this study, 24-hour urine samples were collected using an age- and sex-stratified sampling strategy in rural, urban, and slum areas. Salt intake estimates were made for the overall population of each region and for major subgroups by weighting the survey data for the populations of Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. Complete 24-hour urine samples were available for 637 participants from Delhi and Haryana and 758 from Andhra Pradesh (65% and 68% response rates, respectively). Weighted mean population 24-hour urine excretion of salt was 8.59 g/day (95% CI 7.68-9.51) in Delhi and Haryana and 9.46 g/day (95% CI 9.06-9.85) in Andhra Pradesh (P=0.097). Estimates inflated to account for the minimum likely nonurinary losses of sodium provided corresponding estimates of daily salt intake of 9.45 g/day (95% CI 8.45-10.46) and 10.41 g/day (95% CI 9.97-10.84), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Salt consumption in India is high, with mean population intake well above the World Health Organization recommended maximum of 5 g/day. A national salt reduction program would likely avert much premature death and disability.

KEYWORDS:

24‐hour urinary sodium; India; high blood pressure; hypertension; population studies; population survey; salt; salt intake; sodium

PMID:
28062480
PMCID:
PMC5523637
DOI:
10.1161/JAHA.116.004547
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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